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April 2015 Mystery Plane: 1921 FETTERS “KITE

By Wesley R. Smith (Copyright 2015)

april-mysteryThe Story of the 1921 Fetters “Kite,” or, perhaps, more correctly; the; 1921 Fetters Sport Biplane, actually begins with the birth of Giuseppe Mario Bellanca on 19 March 1886 at Sciacca, Italy. Two years and 10 days later, Enea Bossi, another figure in this story, was born at Milan, Italy. Prior to these two auspicious births, the pioneer Italian aviator (and future volunteer in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911-1912) Mario Cobianchi was born at Bologna, Italy on 8 April 1881. Across the Atlantic, Arthur Haldane Fetters was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Chester County) on 14 July 1870, the son of Leir and Mary Fetters. A few years later on 26 April 1888, Victor H. Roos was born in Omaha, Nebraska; and while the paths of this quartet became entangled in future happenings, we must also mention one last name; Clarence D. Chamberlin, born at Denison, Iowa on 11 November 1893.

Fetters, was educated at Lehigh University between 1888 and 1892, earning a degree in Mechanical Engineering. His first employer was the Baldwin Locomotive Works, where he worked from 1892-1899. In 1899, Fetters became the Chief Draftsman for the Erie Railroad from 1899-1901 (1).

In 1903 Fetters married Harlean B. Curtis, and eventually had two children; Holly and Jack. From late 1901 Fetters joined the Union Pacific Railroad; first, as Chief Draftsman (1901-1904), and later, as Assistant Mechanical Engineer, a position which he held from 1904-1929, when he became General Mechanical Engineer for the entire Union Pacific Railroad. In 1926, Union Pacific sent Fetters to Europe to study the latest developments in railway design. In 1918, Fetters co-designed his first locomotive with C.E. Fuller; a new 2-10-2 design. Later, Fetters also held the title of General Design Engineer. A point which we shall return to, later in this tale.

But, let us return to Italy, where in 1908 Bellanca graduated with a teaching degree in mathematics from the University of Milan (Politecnico de Milan). By that time, Enea Bossi had graduated from the Instituto Technico in Lodi during 1907, specializing in physics and mathematics. The first Bellanca aircraft is said to have resembled a Wright 1907-09 Flyer, apparently somewhat similar in configuration to the aircraft the Wright Brothers demonstrated in Italy in 1909. Construction of this aircraft was started in 1908, being financed by Enea Bossi’s father. It was displayed at the 1909 aviation meet at Reims in 1909, but was apparently not flown. Wikipedia.com claims that the aircraft won a silver medal at Reims and was mass produced. The quotations come from a 1937 Time magazine article and the book; Gossmaer Odyssey. Whatever the source, the claim is clearly apocryphal  Some years later in the midst of the Second World War, Mario Cobianchi wrote his epic history of pioneer Italian Aviation, a book titled; Pionieri Dell’ Aviazione in Italia (2). While Cobianchi makes numerous mentions of Enea Bossi, no mention is made of Bellanca or the third collaborator in the project, Paolo Invernizzi. It is tempting to speculate that the omission of the later two was due to political reasons; however, Bossi had long since emigrated to the United States, so the reason(s) for not mentioning Bellanca and Invernizzi remain elusive.

A somewhat contradictory account of Bellanca’s early work was published in Aviation in 1927 (V 22 N 26. June 27, 1927. Giuseppe M. Bellanca Has Been Designing Successful Airplanes since 1908: Noteworthy Designs Include the First Tractor Biplane, The Roos-Bellanca and the Record Breaking Columbia, pp 1434-1435 and 1448). In this article, it is stated that Bellanca began a series of public experiments in aviation in 1906. Bellanca’s first biplane is said to have been a two-place pusher powered by a Zust engine, and that it was tested at Baggio  (near Milan) on 8 September 1909. It goes on to state that later in the year, Bellanca designed the first tractor biplane to be built, and that it was flown at the Taliedo Aerodrome in 1910.

According to the “Biographical and Historical Notes” offered by the National Air and Space Museum, which has held Bellanca’s papers since 1993, the first aeroplane constructed by the trio made a short flight in early 1909, and is said to be the first all-Italian heavier-than-air aircraft to be powered by an Italian engine. Indeed, this does seem to be likely. Subsequently, the same individuals constructed a second aircraft which never flew due to lack of sufficient funds to purchase an engine. Whatever the case, Giuseppi’s brother, Carlo, was already in Brooklyn, NY, when he urged him to move to America, which he did in 1911.

While “replicas” of Bellanca’s third aircraft have been constructed, details are somewhat hard to come by. It was a tractor parasol monoplane which Bellanca took to Mineola Field on Long Island, where he began to teach himself to fly, at first, by taxiing, then making short hops. Eventually, he made longer flights until, one day, he was forced to make a turn to return to the field. The date was 29 May 1912, and Bellanca had successfully taught himself to fly. By then, Bellanca had established the Bellanca Aeroplane Company and Flying School.

Bellanca’s monoplane was apparently used for flight instruction from 1912 to 1916. Perhaps the most famous of Bellanca’s students was Fiorello (i.e., “Little Flower”) La Guardia. In exchange for teaching La Guardia to fly, La Guardia taught Bellanca to drive! Of course, La Guardia a sitting congressman during America’s entry into the First World War, would step down, and join the United States Army Air Service (USAS), being commissioned as a First Lieutenant in August 1917  He would be placed in charge of the AEF training at Camp Sud before becoming Commanding Officer of Camp Ovest. Eventually, he would be placed in charge of Italian-American aircraft production matters, making monthly trips to Paris. In particular, La Guardia was heavily involved with the American production of the tri-motored Caproni Ca.5 bomber (3).

La Guardia was discharged in November of 1918, and became a strong advocate for aviation in America and in the State of New York, where he served a lengthy term as Mayor of New York City, and eventually had a major New York City airport named after him. As to the 1912 Bellanca, photographic evidence on National Air and Space Museum laser videodisc 2, Side B, frames 2127-2128 and 2137 all show the same aircraft. A parasol-winged, open-framed tractor biplane powered by a three-cylinder Anzani inverted “Y-type” radial of 35 hp. According to one source, this aircraft was last flown by Bellanca’s friend, Clarence D. Chamberlin in August, 1921. A lengthy existence for a pioneer aircraft (4).

As Bellanca entered his second year of flight instruction, Enea Bossi decided to also emigrate to the United States. Sailing aboard RMS Oceanic, Bossi eventually settled at Great Neck, New York, leaving Cherbourg on 20 July 1914. By then, the events leading to the First World War had already been set in motion with the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, at the hands of Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian ultra-nationalist organization; “The Black Hand.” Ostensibly, Bossi had originally come to the United States to study American aviation. He soon found his future wife, a German-speaking Swiss named Flora Kehrer from Lusanne. She had emigrated to America just prior to the beginning of the war, and was living in Connecticut with her aunt and uncle. Bossi knew her uncle through his work, and the couple eloped against the wishes of Flora’s in-laws. In 1914 Aero and Hydro published drawings and a technical description of Bossi’s design for a flying boat, with which he had hoped to compete against the Curtiss America in a bid to capture the Wanamaker transatlantic prize. However, the war put an end to these plans, and Bossi became involved in selling Curtiss Model Fs to Italy. Three Curtiss Model Fs were sold to the Italian Navy along with so-called “Robinsons,” or Curtiss hydro-aeroplane “pushers.” Bossi arranged for the Zari brothers to build Curtiss Model Fs under license (using Curtiss plans), and a total of 8 were constructed at their factory at Bovisia, the prototype flying at Lake Como on 22 September 1914. As it became apparent that Italy would not join Austro-Hungary and Germany, and would remain neutral for the time being, little else was done.

At the core of the 1912 Bellanca was the three-cylinder Anzani “Y” radial. Anzani had entered the engine market by building engines for motorcycles, the first aircraft engines appearing around 1908. Alternatively, Anzani produced “Vee” type engines using four water-cooled cylinders. The smaller engine produced 30 or 32 hp @ 1,600 rpm. A larger 56 hp variant existed, which weighed 308 lbs., as opposed to 187 lbs., for the lower-powered types. The 30-32 hp engine displaced 230.2 cubic inches and the 56 hp displaced 523.52 cubic inches. A six-cylinder water-cooled “W” type also existed, but little is known.

The best known of early Anzani “Vee” types are the two-cylinder and three-cylinder air-cooled “Fan” engines. Two and three cylinder versions existed in 14, 15, 24.5, 31.6 and 42.3 hp ratings. The 24.5 hp three-cylinder Anzani fan-type was the engine selected by Bleriot to power his Typ Onze (Type XI) on his successful bid to fly across the English Channel in July of 1909. The 72 degree angle between the outer cylinders and the center cylinder did not allow for evenly spaced power events, thus making the engine a rough-running proposition. This, however, was solved in due course with the creation of a conventional three-cylinder radial.

The three-cylinder Anzani radial had the cylinders arranged at 120 degree intervals, which allowed power events to be evenly spaced every 240 degrees. The exact date of introduction is unclear, but it appears that these engine were first used on Bleriot Type XI school machines sometime in 1911. The bore and stroke were 4.13 in. (105 mm) and 4.72 in. (120 mm). The total displacement was thus; 189.69 cubic inches. The brake mean effective pressure was 96 lbs./sq. in., at 1,300 rpm, and produced 30 hp. Fuel consumption ranged from 0.60 to 0.64 lbs./bhp-hr, and the oil consumption was 0.11 lbs./bhp-hr. The weight was 121 lbs., or 4.03 lbs./hp. Sometimes loosely referred to as an; “inverted Y-type,” the Anzani three-cylinder radial saw use well into the 1920s and beyond.

The New York and Hagerstown Metal Stamping Co. was originally organized to manufacture small arms for the United Kingdom. The company was reorganized in 1914 to become the Maryland Pressed Steel Company. This in turn, was purchased by the Poole Engineering and Machine Co, which made it a division responsible for aircraft manufacture. In 1916 it hired Bellanca as a consulting engineer to design a two-place training sport biplane, with the goal of selling two-place trainers to the army. The first aircraft was the Bellanca CD (5). It was constructed at the Pope Avenue factory at Hagerstown, Maryland and was test flown at Doub’s Meadow Field (now S. Hagerstown High School). According to advertisements which appeared in the pages of Aerial Age Weekly, the Maryland Pressed Steel Co. (Aircraft Dept.) had its New York office at 299 Madison Ave., and the Sale Manager was Harry E. Tudor. The August 28, 1919 advertisement also touted the slogan; “THE MACHINE YOU WILL EVENTUALLY FLY!!”

Like other parts of the Bellanca saga, there is some confusion surrounding the CD. A photo of the CD appeared in the pages of Aviation (V6 N6. April 15, 1919. The Bellanca C.E. Biplane, p 332). While the article describes the CE in great technical detail, the photo is definitely the earlier CD. In fact, a brief description of the CD appears in the pages of Aerial Age Weekly (V 9 N 20. July 28, 1919. American Commercial, Tourist Pleasure Airplanes, pp 930-931, 943). Designated as the; “Bellanca 35 H.P. Biplane,” the text states that it is a two-place machine which can have the front cockpit covered over, to give the appearance of a single-seater (as seen in the Aviation photo). It apparently had an empty weight of 400 lbs., and had a useful load of 375 lbs., giving a loaded weight of 775 lbs. The upper span was 26 ft., with a chord of 4 ft. The lower wing had a span of 20.5 ft. and a chord of 2 ft 4 in.; the total wing area amounting to 150 sq. ft. (yielding a wing loading of 5.1666…lbs./sq. ft.). The overall length was 17 ft. 7 in. Performance of the CD included a Vmin. of 34 mph and a Vmax. of 85 mph. The initial climb rate was 820 fpm, and the glide ratio was established as 10 miles being covered in 8 min. 5 sec., from an altitude of 4,600 ft. (this gives an impressive 11.478:1 glide ratio). Once again, the 35 hp Anzani three-cylinder engine was used, weighing 325 lbs. (sic, 125 lbs.), according to the text (the approximate power loading was 22.14 lbs./sq. ft.). Tested at Towson, Maryland in August of 1917, no orders from the army were forthcoming; however, according to the Wikipedia entry for the Bellanca CD, a total of 6 were apparently built, and the roll control was via wing warping. The Wikipedia text also notes that Lewis E. Reisner was an employee of the company. He subsequently formed the Reisner Aero Service Co., which went on to become the Kreider-Reisner Ai

Bellanca Model 1918

Bellanca Model 1918

As previously related, the Bellanca CD was shortly followed by the CE. Like the CD, the CE was built in 1917. The configuration was also a tractor biplane which had a high level of safety factors incorporated into the airframe. A factor of 12 was built into the wings with a “drift stress” factor of 14. The fuselage also had a safety factor of 12. The airframe was constructed of white ash for the main components, welding and brazing being eliminated wherever possible. The wing airfoil selected by Bellanca was Eiffel 32, the spars, ribs and interplane struts being made of the same materials. The box girder fuselage was again made of ash with wire bracing, and a thin veneer over the top. The front was neatly cowled in aluminum a round door providing access to the 55 hp Anzani 6-C, a six-cylinder air-cooled radial weighing 154 lbs., and driving a 7 ft. diameter propeller of unknown pitch and make. The entire airframe was covered in linen, doped and varnished. The overall dimensions of the CE were increased over that of the CD. The upper span was lengthened to 28 ft., and the chord was 4 ft. 6 in. The lower wing had a span of 21 ft. 6 in. with a chord of 2 ft. 9 in., giving a total wing area of 184 sq. ft. Unlike the CD, ailerons were incorporated into the CE. Length of the CE was also increased to 18 ft. 6 in. The empty weight had risen to 470 lbs., and the useful load was 510 lbs., giving a total weight of 980 lbs. (yielding a wing loading 5.32 lbs./sq. ft. and a power loading of 17.81 lbs./sq. ft.). A conventional control stick and rudder bar were used. Emphasis was given to ease of assembly and disassembly, the text stating the disassembly took 30 min., and that re-assembly required 40 min.

Performance of the CE was nothing short of spectacular for an aircraft of its type. In the most lightly loaded condition, the pilot and one hour’s fuel weighed 185 lbs. This gave the CE a V max. of 102 mph, a Vmin. of 32 mph and a climb rate of 1,180 fpm. 9,000 ft. could be reached in 10 min., and 10,000 ft. could be reached in 12 min., with 15,000 ft. taking 25 min. The minimum horsepower required to maintain horizontal flight was stated to be a mere 7 hp. Tests were also undertaken at useful loads of 250, 400 and 500 pounds. At the maximum loaded weight, the CE carried two persons (300 lbs.) and fuel (110 lbs.) for a 3 hr. flight at full throttle, or 4 hrs. at a setting of 40 hp., a total of 510 lbs., useful load, with an additional 100 lbs. added for cargo. With this load, the CE attained a V max. of 97 mph and a Vmin. of 41 mph, with a climb rate of 600 fpm. The minimum horsepower require for horizontal flight had only risen to only 14 hp. A final advertisement which appeared in the pages of Aerial Age Weekly (V 12 N 24. February 1921, p 600) gave somewhat different performance characteristics, stating that 6,000 ft. could be reached in 10 min and that the ceiling was 16,000 ft.

With the end of the First World War, all aircraft contracts were canceled. The solitary Bellanca CE was purchased by Clarence Duncan Chamberlin who flew it to Glen Falls, New York. An advertisement which appeared in Aerial Age Weekly (V 10 N 9. December 8-15, 1919) stated that the glide ratio was 15:1, an astonishing figure. Nevertheless, excellent performance and flight characteristics did not translate into sales and the assets of the Maryland Pressed Steel Company were eventually for sale, and, as previously stated, advertisements for the Bellanca CE ran into February of 1921. A photo of the CE with Giuseppie M. Bellanca and Clarence Chamberlin,.appeared in ad the first article to mention the next Bellanca airplane, the CF (6).

Enter Victor H. Roos. Born in Omaha, Nebraska on 26 April 1888, Roos had been selling Harley-Davidson motorcycles for a number of years. By 1921, Arthur H. Fetters was settled into his prominent engineering position at Union Pacific, also located at Omaha. It is not known how Roos knew Fetters, but together they purchased the aviation assets of the Maryland Pressed Steel Company, and moved them to Omaha. Negotiations for the sale of Bellanca designs began with a short article in the News of the Week section of Aerial Age Weekly (V 12 N 6. October 18, 1920. A Manufacturing Opportunity, pp 67-68). In that article, Harry E. Tudor, still Sales Manager at the Maryland Pressed Steel Co., wished to negotiate for the license manufacture of Bellanca designs, particularly the CE.

It is an odd fact of conducting research into aviation history that one occasionally stumbles across something quite unexpected. Such was the case when early this year I came across a photo of the Fetters “Kite,” a diminiative biplane attributed to A.H. Fetters of Omaha, Nebraska, flown by a pilot named; W.G. Kite. To add to this author’s bewilderment this was not found in an American aviation periodical, no – it was in the April 21, 1921 issue of Flight! Obviously, as the text stated, it was powered by a 35 hp Anzani, but who was Fetters? I had to know. This led me a merry chase across the internet and through my book and periodical collection. Finally, some answers emerged. Fetters, was connected to Victor Roos, and Roos was connected to Bellanca and numerous other aviation pioneers. Moreover, Fetters had a lengthy career as a prominent engineer.

As it now sits, it would appear that this previously unrecorded American biplane was an original design. The caption records that the aircraft was designed by A.H. Fetters. It was flown non-stop between Grand Island, Nebraska and Omaha, a distance of 142 miles in 1 hr. 25 min. by W.G. Kite. During the journey. Kite replenished the fuel using two cans, and leaving the controls while he did so. Even more astonishing is that he refilled the oil tank by sitting on a hot water bottle filled with oil, which was connected to the tank! The span of the “Kite” was 24 ft., the chord is recorded as 3 ft., and the gap as 3 ft. 6 in. The stagger was 9 in., and the wing airfoil was USA No. 4. The loaded weight for the trip was 545 lbs., and the speed range was 24-90 mph. Nothing else has been found, however, this is not the end of the story.

According to www.aerofiles.com, we pick up with Bellanca again in 1920 with a two-place biplane designed for post-war light aircraft competition. The information states that it had a span of 26 ft. and a length of 17 ft. 7 in. Once again, the engine chosen was a 35 hp Anzani. The useful load was said to be 375 lbs., and the cost was $3,500.00. Vmax. was 85 mph, and Vmin was 34 mph. The aircraft had wing warping for lateral control and could be disassembled in 15 min., and reassembled in 20 min., using special turnbuckles. The author can neither confirm nor deny the existence of this aircraft, as he has no other information on it. This website also asserts that Bellanca built other designs between the 1912-1916 parasol and the CD. Again, I have no supporting information.

Bellanca, would go on to build the CF after relocating to Omaha in 1921. The new company would become the Roos-Bellanca Company, which was dissolved in 1924. The CF would survive and become part of the aircraft collection of the National Air and Space Museum. Clyde Cessna would be briefly involved with Roos after leaving Travel Air, the Cessna-Roos company existing only from 27 September 1927 to  December, when Roos sold Cessna his part of the venture after only one month. Roos then became involved with the Swallow Airplane Company before moving on in 1928 to the American Eagle Aircraft Company (7). Also instrumental in the merger of the American Eagle Aircraft Co. with the Lincoln-Page Aircraft Co. in 1931. The reincorporated company became the American Eagle-Lincoln Aircraft Co., based at Fairfax airport in Kansas City, Missouri (8). Roos went on to create the short-lived Victor H. Roos Aircraft Co., and continued to sell E.E. Porterfield-designed “Eaglet” B-31. After the factory closed, Roos allowed Ben Howard to build his racer, “Mr. Mulligan,” after production of the “Eaglet” ceased. Roos’ last enterprise was the Automatic Coin Machine Co., which distributed juke boxes. He passed away on 6 October 1964, aged 76.

The five-place Bellanca CF was a significant leap forward in aircraft design. Financed by Victor H. Roos, (the original sale price was $5,000.00) it was test-flown at Ft. Crook, Nebraska by air mail pilot Harry G. Smith on 8 June 1922. Smith remarked that if the aircraft would have had dual controls, he could have taught anyone to fly in one week. Not only was the CF a high wing, five-place cabin monoplane, it was demonstrated to be extremely stable and capable of assorted aerobatic maneuvers, including, loops, spins, side-slips, and turns at 400 ft., using only the rudder with the pilot’s hands off the controls. The Cf was also quite strong for a cantilever monoplane, with the front spar having a +10.5g load factor, and the rear spar a safety factor of +5 gs, the overall wing safety factor being + 9 gs. Also noteworthy were the “lift struts” incorporated on Bellanca designs for some time thereafter. The glide ratio was quite flat, being 12:1, and the Vmax. was calculated to be 109.8 mph. The construction of the “lift struts” included the use of 0.25 in. cables which attached to “cantilver points” on one wing, ran down the lift strut, across the bottom of the fuselage and up the opposite lift strut, connecting at opposite points on the other semi-span. Considered to be lower wings, the thickness to chord ratio was 16%, and the lift-to-drag ration 16.4:1. The combined L/D of the main wings, auxiliary wings and “short wires and struts,” was 18:1. Likewise, the fuselage was quite strong, being capable of withstanding a total load of 70 lbs./sq. ft., applied at the tail surfaces. The horizontal tail surfaces were designed to withstand a load of 50 lbs/sq. ft., and the rudder a force of 35 lbs./sq.ft. The landing gear, had a safety factor of + 8 gs.

The fuselage was constructed of Port Orford cedar, and was of box girder construction, reinforced with cables and wires. The cabin could hold up to 6 in an emergency. The two rear seats faced forward, while the front two passenger seats could face in either direction; the pilot having a seat at the front of the cabin. Three windows were provided on either side and ventilation was supplied to the cabin through small scoops. The front windows could be opened and two baggage compartments were supplied. The engine was, like all previous Bellanca designs, an Anzani, this time a ten-cylinder double-row radial of 90 hp. Bellanca designed a special 8 ft. diameter propeller of 8 ft. pitch, and the aluminum spinner was fitted with cooling slots for the engine, which had already been tested for 3 hrs. without overheating. The V-type landing gear was of conventional design, made of ash, and covered with birch veneer.  Span of the main wing was 40 ft. with a chord of 6 ft. 6 in. The span of the “lower wing,” or lift struts, was 22 ft., with a chord of 2 ft. 6 in., giving an overall wing area of 290 sq. ft. Overall length of the CF was 23 ft. 10 in., and the height was 7 ft. 3 in. The empty weight was 950 lbs. With a useful load of 1,040 lbs., the gross weight of the CF was 1,990 lbs. This resulted in a wing loading of 6.85 lbs./sq. ft. Payload for a flight of 600 mi. resulted in a reduction of the useful load to 680 lbs., exclusive of the pilot, gas and oil. Performance of the CF with a 1,200 lb. load resulted in a Vmax. of 109.8 mph with a Vmin. of 30 mph. This yielded a climb rate of 1,100 fpm, and a climb to 7,000 ft. in 10 min. In a fully loaded condition the CF had a Vmax. of 108 mph, with a Vmin. of 40 mph. the climb rate was reduced to 600 fpm, and it took 10 min. to reach 5,000 ft. The power required to maintain level flight rose to 31 hp, as opposed to 14 hp for the more lightly loaded condition. the glide angle was 12:1, and the gasoline and oil capacity was 38 gal., the Anzani burning 9.5 gph, or about 16 miles-per-gallon. This gave the CF a range of 600 mi. at Vc, and a range of 400 mi. at full-throttle.

Bellanca’s life would be forever changed by the CF. While only a single example had been built, it was sold to the New York Yellow Air Cab Co. and Continental Aircraft Corp. in 1924. They would alter the cockpit, add more windows and install a 110 hp Anzani. It was modified again in 1928 when a 55 gal. fuel tank was added and the vertical tail was modified. During the construction of the CF in 1922, Bellanca would meet his future wife, Ms. Dorothy Brown, whom he married on 18 November 1922. After the initial test flights by Smith, the CF would be flown around the midwest to attract sales. It won four awards at the Midwestern Flying Meet at Monmouth, Illinois. Flown by airmail pilot Bill Hobson, the CF appeared at the Tariko Air Meet, The Interstate Air Meet, and at the 1923 National Air Races, where it won the efficiency competition. After passing from the hand of the Yellow Air Cab Co., the CF was again modified for more range. It was flown by Bert Acosta before the owner, Bert Koltze, made his first flight in the CF. The CF was then displayed at the Roosevelt Field Air Museum before coming into possession by the Bellanca family, who in turn donated the aircraft to the National Air Museum (now, NASM) in 1960. Eventually, the aircraft was restored and is on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D.C.

Bellanca’s next project was application of the lift strut to a Dayton-Wright DH 4 mail plane. This work was done after Bellanca had left the Roos-Bellanca company in late 1923 to form the Bellanca Aircraft Co. at Farmingdale, L.I. Three DH 4s were so modified, and were used on the Chicago-Cleveland airmail route, flying 160,000 mi. each. According to the 1927 Aviation article from which this information is taken, the three aircraft were being held in reserve in 1927. In addition to the modification of the DH 4s, Aerofiles states that in 1923 Bellanca built a six-place cabin high wing monoplane powered by a Curtiss OX-5, and two additional two-place open cockpit biplanes powered by Curtiss OX-5 engines. Like the 1920 light biplane, the author can neither confirm, nor deny, this. Nevertheless, the respected aviation historian Joseph Juptner wrote in his first volume of U.S. Civil Aircraft (Chapter on the CH-200, ATC # 47, pp 125-126); “…Earlier Bellanca history can take us back a few years to the year 1923. Giuseppe Mario Bellanca, as many other early pioneers, including Grover Loening and Igor Sikorsky, was engaged in building high-lift and high-performance replacement wing panels to earn a few ‘bucks’ and to keep some semblance of production going, while working on new developments. These ‘wing sets’ were built for the famous mail-carrying DH-4, the beloved ‘Jenny’ and just about about anyone who cared to improve the performance of their airplanes with a good set of wings…”

In 1925 Bellanca joined the Wright Aeronautical Corp. as a consultant, apparently in partial thanks to his close association with Clarence D. Chamberlin. His first aircraft was the Wright-Bellanca WB-1, an all-wood, five-place, high-wing cabin monoplane, powered by a 200 hp Wright J-4 radial. The aircraft had a span of 45 ft. and a length of 24 ft. 9 in. The loaded weight of the WB-1 was 1,440 lbs. Vmax. was 132 mph, while Vc was 100 mph, and Vmin. was 45 mph. A unique feature of the WB-1 was the faired landing gear struts and wheels. This resulted in a somewhat unusual appearance. It made its public debut at the 1925 Pulitzer Air Race at New York, where it achieved 121.8 mph on the first day it was flown. On the second day of the race the WB-1 won the efficiency contest and the horsepower versus payload competition. During a test to set the world endurance record, the aircraft was destroyed the following year, when Fred Becker attempted a landing in an overloaded condition, the aircraft “cart wheeling,” and being totally destroyed.

As a follow-on the WB-1, Bellanca designed and built the WB-2 in 1926. Like the WB-1, the aircraft (registered NX237), was an evolution dating back to the CF. It was a six-place cabin high wing monoplane powered by the new Wright J-5 Whirlwind of 220 hp. Once again, the span was increased to 46 ft. 4 in., and the overall length was 27 ft. 9 in. With a useful load of 1,604 lbs., the WB-2 had a Vmax. of 126 mph, a Vc of 105 mph and a Vmin. of 47 mph. A unique feature of the WB-2 was the ability to jettison the landing gear.

Introduced at the 1926 National Air Races, the WB-2 was piloted by Lt. C.C. Champion, and won both efficiency records. Unfortunately for Bellanca, the Wright Aeronautical Corp. had decided not to build aircraft, only engines. Bellanca thus left Wright with the WB-2, which he purchased for $15,000.00 and the rights to the design. With investor Charles Levine, Bellanca established the Columbia Aircraft Co. with the aim of breaking all previous endurance records. On 12 April 1927, the WB-2  took off from Roosevelt Field using a 1,200 ft. runway. Piloted by Clarence Chamberlin and Bert Acosta, the aircraft stayed aloft for 51 hrs. 11 min. and 25 sec., breaking all endurance records, and having covered an estimated 4,100 mi. Only two weeks later on 24 April, the aircraft was christened “Columbia” by Levine’s eight-year-old daughter. Unfortunately, the aircraft was damaged that day when it suffered a damaged undercarriage. Still, Chamberlin was able to successfully land the aircraft with two children aboard.

Following the record flight, Charles Lindbergh attempted to purchase the WB-2 to win the Ortieg Prize of $25,000.00 for a non-stop flight across the Atlantic from New York to Paris. Crossing the Atlantic by air was by no means a new thing. In the nineteenth century Edgar Allen Poe had written the “Balloon Hoax,” in 1844 and American Aeronaut John Wise had obtained the backing necessary to build the balloon; “Atlantic,” for an attempted crossing in 1859. However, a test flight from St. Louis nearly ended in disaster, the balloon landing on the east shore of Lake Ontario after a flight of 1,100 mi. Moreover, the Curtiss NC-4 had flown across the Atlantic in 1919, as had the Vickers Vimy piloted by Alcock and Brown, and the first double-crossing took place when the British rigid airship R.34 flew from England to the United States and back.

Still, the 1920s were the decade of aeronautical records. Lindbergh had convinced Major Albert Bond Lambert (a one-time Wright Model B pilot), Earl Thompson, et. al. to back the flight. He met with Levine who was asking $25,000.00 for the WB-2, but said he would drop the price to $15,000.00 due to the publicity Columbia would receive. Lindbergh returned to St. Louis and obtained the money, and returned to New York for a second meeting. The second meeting was attended by Levine, Chamberlin and Bellanca. They refused to accept Lindbergh as the pilot, and asked him to return the next day for a third meeting. Lindbergh did so, but Columbia was adamant that they be allowed to select the flight crew, which was unacceptable to Lindbergh. As we all know, Lindbergh then attempted to purchase a modified Travel Air 5000, but was rebuffed by that company, as well. Thus, Lindbergh set off for Ryan, where he purchased the NYP for his successful flight while Admiral Byrd was repairing his modified Atlantic (Fokker) C-2 “America,” and Levine with the “Columbia.”

A complex set of arguments then ensued between Levine, Bert Acosta and Lloyd W. Bertraud. Levine refused to provide a settlement to Acosta’s and Bertraud’s wives in the event of a crash. This prompted an injunction by Bertraud which delayed the take-off of the “Columbia.” After Lindbergh had crossed the Atlantic on 20-21 May 1927, the WB-2 awaited another attempt. A fire nearly burned the WB-2 when fuel was being off-loaded. Another attempt was then made but mechanics from the American Trans-Oceanic Co. refused a permit allowing the WB-2 to take-off. The company in question had leased the field and was sponsoring the “America.” Without the signature of the company president, Grover Whalen, the “Columbia” was grounded.

The Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce then offered a $15,000.00 prize for a transatlantic attempt. Chamberlin wanted Bernt Bachlen, but he was unavailable, already being part of Byrd’s crew. So, Chamberlin offered the back seat to his wife, but she was displaced when Levine decided he would accompany Chamberlin. The aircraft finally took-off on 4 June 1927, with the object of flying to Berlin. Following the take-off Levine’s wife was notified via his lawyer that they were headed across the Atlantic, but the flight did not go smoothly. Levine reached nearly 20,000 ft. at one point, and blacked out, the aircraft entering a spin which he did not recover from until reaching 4,000 ft. The WB-2 landed about 100 mi. short of its goal, arriving at Eisleben, Germany after covering 3,905 mi. and lasting 42 hrs. 45 min. However, that was not the end of the flight. While in Europe, Levine became entangled in a strange relationship with Mabel Boll, (aka: “the Queen of Diamonds”) who followed him to England, before finally returning to America by ship in early 1928. Levine had planned to fly the WB-2 back to America, but the first east-to-west aircraft flight would have to wait until the spring of 1928 when the Junkers “Bremen” earned that honor. Boll persisted in being the first woman to cross the Atlnatic by air, but that distinction would go to Amelia Earhart, crossing on Byrd’s Fokker F.VIIb-3m, “Friendship,” with Wilmer Stultz acting as pilot. But the damage had already been done, Bellanca announced that he was leaving Columbia. Upon leaving Columbia, Bellanca took the rights to the WB-2 with him. Financed by the DuPont family, Bellanca founded the Bellanca Aircraft Corporation at Richmond Hill, New York on 30 December 1927. eventually moving to New Castle, Delaware in 1928.

“Columbia” would continue to make record flights. In 1929 it was flown in a race from New York to California, piloted by Commander John Iseman and Lt. J. Farnum. In 1930 the “Columbia” was flown from New York to Bermuda and back in a 17 hr. 3 min. flight, piloted by Erroll Boyd, Roger Q. Williams and Harry P. Conner. Renamed; “Maple Leaf,” the WB-2 was flown from Canada to London, England in 36 hrs and 10 min. on 9 October 1930. On this occasion the aircraft was piloted by Boyd and Conner. A final record flight was made by the WB-2, when “Maple Leaf” flew non-stop to Port-au-Prince, Haiti from New York in 24 hrs. and 8 min. On this occasion the aircraft was flown by Erroll Boyd and Robert G. Lyon, with H.P. Davis as passenger. A return flight, minus Davis, was made to Washington, D.C. on 7 June 1933, carrying a special commemorative stamp. Unfortunately, that was the swan song of “Maple Leaf.” It accidentally burned in a hangar fire at the Bellanca factory at Newcastle, Delaware on 25 January 1934. But, it was not the end of Bellanca. He would continue to design numerous successful aircraft into the post-World War Two era.

Seizing on the successful design, Bellanca would go on to build the Model J “Pathfinder” which Yancy and Williams flew from Old Orchard, Maine to Rome, Italy in 1929. The end result was the Model CH was was introduced in early 1928. Late in the same year, Victor Dalin flew the CH-200 in an air race held at Los Angeles. He would win the Aviation Town and Country award for efficiency and the Detroit News Air Transport trophy for efficiency. By this time, Bellanca had relocated to Newcastle from Arlington, Staten Island, New York. The CH-200 would be Bellanca’s first type certificated aircraft. It would continue to evolve into the CH-300 (ATC # 129) and the CH-400.

Of the others mentioned in this story, closure is called for. Enea Bossi, Bellanca’s one-time partner in Italy had joined the Italian Navy during the First World War, becoming an instructor and bomber pilot. After the war, Bossi emigrated to the United States, eventually becoming a naturalized citizen. He worked on fuel systems during the 1920s, establishing the Societe Continentale Parker in France during 1927, with Robert Dete, pioneer aviator Louis Paulhan and Pierre Prier. The purpose of the company was to spread surface treatments for metals throughout Europe. He arranged deals with Parker Rust-Proofing in Detroit for parkerizing and had the European rights for electroplating Udylite Corp., and its subsequent German subsidiaries.

in 1928, Bossi founded the American Aeronautical Corp. to build the Savoia-Marchetti S-55 and S-56 under license in America. While the S-56 had limited success, the S-55 did not. Today, two original AAC S-56s exist, one at the Cradle of Aviation Museum on Long Island, New York. Bossi was nearly killed in the crash of an S-56 during 1930, which claimed the life of AAC test pilot Peter Talbot. When the Great Depression caused the failure of AAC, Bossi turned his attention to the Edward G. Budd manufacturing Corp., a manufacturer of stainless steel railway cars. Bossi joined the corporation as head of the stainless steel research to supervise the construction of the Budd BB-1 “Pioneer” flying boat. Constructed in 1931, the aircraft still exists as an outdoor exhibit at the Franklin Institute at Phildelphia, Pennsylvania, where it has been since 1934. Ultimately, the technology of the BB-1 would be incorporated in the Budd RB-1 (USAAF designation; C-93) “Conestoga,” a large transport category aircraft constructed near the end of the Second World War. The USN contract for 200 RB-1s was canceled and only 25 were completed, the entire C-93 contract being canceled. However, before AAC folded, Bossi had the foresight to sell his controlling interest in the company to the Dayton Airplane Engine Company in 1931. Bossi now turned his talents to other matters.

in 1933 the Frankfurt Polytechniche Gesselschaft (Frankfurt Polytechnic Society) offered a prize for the first human-powered aircraft. Bossi had already conducted experiments with propeller-driven bicycles in 1932. While such ideas were far from new (Professor William H. Pickering, for instance, had constructed a “Wind Wagon” as a member of the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1908), Bossi’s experiments established several problems with human-powered aircraft; torque, power and thrust. The Italian government offered a similar prize in 1936 (100,000 lire for a flight of 1 km), but Bossi was not technically eligible, since he was now an American citizen. However, he decided to make the attempt anyway.

Bossi contacted Vittorio Bonomi, an Italian sailplane manufacturer, and obtained Emilio Cassco, an immensely strong Major in the Italian Army as pilot. Named “Pedaliante,” or “pedal glider,” the first flight attempts were made in early 1936, Casco making an initial flight of 300 ft. (91.4 m). This became the first unquestioned human-powered flight in the history of aviation..Bossi, then employed a catapult device and on 13 September the aircraft made a flight of several hundred meters.This was followed by a successful 1 km flight on 18 March 1937, after a launch to 29.5 ft. Unfortunately, catapult launches were not allowed by the rules, and Bossi did not win the prize. Nevertheless, before the aircraft was retired the following year, 80 flights had been made, 43 without the aid of the catapult.

Yet, the paths of Bellanca and Bossi would cross one last time. While the name of Higgins is normally associated with the development of landing craft and patrol boats for the USN, lucrative military contracts led to the establishment of an aircraft department within Higgins Industries, Inc. In 1941 Bellanca would become head Higgins Aircraft, Inc., at New Orleans, Louisana. The Higgins EB-1 was originally developed by the Isaac Delgado Trades School, and was completed during 1943 by Enea Bossi at the Helicopter Division of Higgins Industries, Inc., which was a separate entity from Higgins Aircraft, which had been established to build 500 Curtiss C-76 “Caravans.” Bellanca is alleged to have designed transport aircraft for Higgins Aircraft, but details of this are lacking. Drawings held by the NASM archives appear to indicate that the aircraft could have been designated as; XC-942, according to Aerofiles.

In 1954 Bellanca retired, and formed the Bellanca Development Corporation. Bossi would continue to work on contra-rotating helicopter rotor blades and tail rotors, a work which was somewhat advanced by his two sons. Bellanca designed a number of noteworthy aircraft during his lifetime. In 1955 production rights of Bellanca designs were sold to Cruisemaster, complete with jigs and tools. In turn, these were sold to Northern Aircraft of Alexandria, Minnesota. Bellanca aircraft continued to be built by successor companies until the 1990s. Bellanca would pass away on 26 December 1960 at Memorial Hospital in New York City, from leukemia. Bossi, would live until 1964, when he died at the Miami Valley Hospital, while visiting a friend in Dayton, Ohio.

Clarence Duncan Chamberlin, the life-long friend of Bellanca and pilot of the “Columbia” passed away on 30 October 1976, never having been able to return to Denison, Iowa to be honored for his work in aviation. Arthur Haldane Fetters, the ostensible subject of this article, would go back to being a locomotive designer after his brief interlude into aviation. On 12 February 1934, the Fetters-designed M-10000 was delivered to Union Pacific at a cost of $230,997.00. The M-10000, and its sister, the M-10001, were powered by two 600 hp, V-12, spark-ignition, Winton 191-A distllate engines (this engine was unrelated to later Winton Diesel engines). Winton, had been a pioneer manufacturer of automobiles in the United States and Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson of Burlington, Vermont had made the first transcontinental crossing of the U.S. in 1903. Starting from San Francisco on 23 May with his mechanic, Crocker Sewell, he arrived in New York City on 26 July in the “Vermont” (preserved at the Smithsonian Institution), roughly five months before the Wright Brothers flew the 1903 Flyer at Kitty Hawk on 17 December 1903.. Close on Dr. Jackson’s trail was a Packard Model F, the “Old Pacific,” driven by E.T. “Tom” Fetch, who didn’t arrive at San Francisco until 13 June (the “Old Pacific” is preserved at the Henry Ford Museum at Dearborn, Michigan). Winton ceased automobile production in 1924, but continued to build engines as a subdivision of General Motors as the Winton Engine Co.. At any rate, the distinctively streamlined M-10000 made a 13,000 mi. tour of the U.S., visiting Washington, D.C. where it was personally inspected by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In fact, the train was a crowd pleaser at every stop, drawing at least one million visitors during its tour. At one point the M-10000 was named “City of Salina.” Martin P. Blomberg, a Pullman engineer had been partially responsible for the exterior streamlining of the train, which was given the U.S. design patent number D 100,000.

As stated above, Fetters’ design of the M-10000 had come from a trip to Europe in 1926 at the behest of Union Pacific to study diesel locomotive developments. He also worked with an engineer named McKeen, who had continued development of petroleum fuels in order to build better engines. In 1929 Fetters was designated Mechanical Engineer for the entire Union Pacific. His last locomotive design came in 1936, a 4-6-6-4 steam locomotive designed to scale the mountains of the western U.S. In particular, the stretch of mountains between Ogden and Wasatch, known as the “overland route” where the grade changes from 0.82% to 1.14%. Also known as the “Challenger,” these Alco-built locomotives were critical in moving material during the Second World War, but they still required additional engines to move big loads across the mountains. As a result, the Department of Research and Mechanical Standards (DoRMS) under the leadership of Otto Jabelmann, came up with a modification of the “Challenger,” which created the Alco (American Locomotive Company) “Big Boy.” By increasing the size of the firebox, lengthening the boiler, adding a pair of driving wheels, and reducing their diameter from 69 in. to 68 in., the new 4-8-8-4 “big Boy” was able to exceed a tractive power of 135,000 lbs. The first “Big Boy” was delivered from Alco’s Schenectady, New York factory to Union Pacific at Omaha, just before America’s entry into World War Two, on 5 September 1941. In all, only 25 “Big Boys” were built. One is currently undergoing restoration to running condition, the last being removed from service in 1961-62 and stored at Green River, Wyoming.

In 1945 Arthur H. Fetters was living in San Diego. On 24 February 1946, Fetters passed away at the age of 75. He is buried at Greenwood Cemetery. His wife, born on 23 September 1879, survived him by over 18 years, passing away on 10 July 1963 at the age of 83.

FOOTNOTES

1. Another source states that Fetters worked at Erie from April to August of 1901.

2. A notation at the beginning of Cobianchi’s book states that he planned to write additional volumes on Italian Aviation during the Italo-Turkish War (i.e., “Tripolitanian,” or Lybian, War), and two other volumes. One on First World War Italian Aviation and another volume on lighter-than-air pioneers in Italy. Unfortunately, Cobianchi passed away on 15 January 1944, and whatever manuscripts that may have existed are apparently lost to history. Pioneiri Dell’ Aviazione in Italia, was published in 1943.

3. The Ca. 5 series was modified to used the American Liberty V-12 engine. It was built in Italy as the Ca. 46, while the Standard Aircraft Corporation at Elizabeth, New Jersey assigned it the model number; “E-3,” but built only one airframe. Three Ca.5 night bombers were also built by the Fisher Body Co. at Detroit.

4. Aerofiles.com states that Bellanca built another monoplane in 1916, but I can find no supporting evidence for the existence of this aircraft.

5. The meaning of these letters remains unclear. However, if one counts the two aircraft built in Italy, and the 1912-1916 parasol monoplane, by extrapolation they could be considered the Bellanca CA-CC. But, this is speculation.

6. Aerial Age Weekly. V 12 N 24. February 21, 1921. Bellanca Announces Five-Seater, p 603.

7. According to the Wikipedia biography of Roos, the American Eagle Aircraft Co., was to build the designs of Giuseppe Bellanca. I have found no confirming evidence to support this contention.

8. Lincoln-Page had evolved from the Nebraska Aircraft Corp.., founded in 1919 by A.G. Hebb, and three other men. They built a number of modified designs based on the Standard J-1 trainer, notably, the “Tourabout,” and other design modifications created by Vincent Burnelli. Ray H. Page took over the corp. on 6 August 1920, renaming the corp., the Lincoln Standard Aircraft Corp.  In 1922 the company was again reorganized as the Lincoln Aircraft Corp. Charles Lindbergh would enroll as a student in their flight school in February of 1922, and flew for the first time on 9 April 1922 in a Lincoln-Standard piloted by Otto W. Timm. Sharing the two-place front cockpit was Bud Gurney. Nebraska Aircraft Corp. (Lincoln Standards) differed in various ways from the original configuration built by the Standard Aircraft Corp. of Elizabeth, New Jersey. The original Hall-Scott A-7a engine was replaced by a 150 hp Wright-Martin A, (a license-built Hispano-Suiza). Two seats were also usually placed in the front cockpit.  In a complex turn of events, Lindbergh was not allowed to solo because he could not afford to post the bond that the corporation owner, Ray Page, required in the event of an accident. When the aircraft was sold in June, Lindbergh went with the new owner E.G. Bahl to act as a wing walker and parachutist in exchange for more flight instruction; Lindbergh receiving almost no instruction from Ira O. Biffle at the school. Ray Page agreed to merge Lincoln-Page due to ill health. He retired in 1930 and passed away on 17 March 1933 at the age of 50.

BOOKS

Anderson, Rudolph E. THE STORY OF THE AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE. Washington: The Public Affairs Press, 1952, pp 76, 127, 139, 140, 145, 178.

Angle, Glenn D. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AIRPLANE ENGINES. Dayton, Ohio: Otterbien Press, 1921.

Bridgman, Leonard. JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT 1945-46. New York: Arco Publishing Co., Inc., 1970 reprint, pp 265c-266c.

Brockett, Paul. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AERONAUTICS 1909-1916. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1916, p 192

ibid. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AERONAUTICS 1917-1919, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1923, p 51.

ibid. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AERONAUTICS 1920-1921. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1925, p 45.

ibid. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AERONAUTICS 1922. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1925, p 16.

Cobianchi, Mario, PIONIERI DELL’ AVIAZIONE IN ITALIA. Rome: Editoriale Aeronautico, 1943, pp 38, 40, 376, 387, 390, 411, 416.

Georgano, G.N., Ed. THE NEW ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MOTORCARS: 1885 TO THE PRESENT. London: E.P. Dutton, Inc., 1982, p 670.

Grey, Charles G. JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT 1920. London: Sampson and Low, 1920, pp 279a-280a.

ibid. JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT 1922. London: Sampson and Low, 1922, p 174b.

ibid. JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT 1923. London: Sampson and Low, 1923, p 194b.

ibid. JANE’S ALL THE WORLD’S AIRCRAFT 1924. London: Sampson and Low, 1924, pp 222b-223b.

Hollingsworth, Brian and Arthur Cook. THE GREAT BOOK OF TRAINS: FEATURING 300 LOCOMOTIVES SHOWN IN OVER 160 FULL-COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS AND MORE THAN 500 PHOTOGRAPHS. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1987, pp 164-165.

Juptner, Joseph P. U.S. CIVIL AIRCRAFT VOLUME 1: ATC NUMBER 1 TO 100. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1962, pp 125-127

ibid. U.S. CIVIL AIRCRAFT VOLUME 4 ATC NUMBER 301 TO 400. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1967, pp 248-251.

ibid. U.S. CIVIL AIRCRAFT VOLUME 5 ATC NUMBER 401 TO 500. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., pp 145-147.

ibid.U.S. CIVIL AIRCRAFT VOLUME 9: ATC NUMBERS – 801-817. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1981, pp 220 and 228.

Musselman, M.M. GET A HORSE: THE STORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE IN AMERICA. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1950.

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. BIBLIOGRPAHY OF AERONAUTICS 1927. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1928, p 17.

Pellegreno, And Holtgren. IOWA TAKES TO THE AIR; VOLUME TWO 1919-1941. Story City, Iowa: Aerodrome Press, 1986, pp 219-220, 245-247 and 270.

Vergnano, Piero. ORIGINI DELL’AVIAZIONE IN ITALIA 1783-1918. Genova: Edizione Intyprint, 1964

PERIODICALS

Aerial Age Weekly. V 9 N 18. July 14, 1919. Maryland Pressed Steel Company Advertisement, p 866.

ibid. V 9 N 20. July 28, 1919. American Commercial, Tourist and Pleasure Aeroplanes, pp 930-931 and 943.

ibid. V 9 N 24. August 28, 1919. The Liberty Caproni Biplane, pp 1089-1091, 1108.

ibid. V 9 N 24. August 28, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 1106.

ibid. V 10 N 1. September 15, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 30.

ibid. V 10 N 2. September 22, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 65.

ibid. V 10 N 3. September 29, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 98.

ibid. V 10 N 4. October 6, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 136.

ibid. V 10 N 9. December 8-15, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement: Bellanca Glide Ratio 15:1, p 942.

ibid. V 10 N 10. December 22, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 376.

ibid. V 10 N 12. January 5, 1920. Bellanca Advertisement, p 472.

ibid. V 10 N 13. January 12, 1920. Bellanca Advertisement, p 512.

ibid. V 10 N 14. January 19, 1920. Maryland Pressed Steel Company Advertisement, p 545.

ibid. V N . February 23, 1920. Bellanca Advertisement, p 704.

ibid. V N . March 29, 1920. Maryland Pressed Steel Company Advertisement, p 98.

ibid. V N .April 12, 1920. Maryland Pressed Steel Company Advertisement, p 164.

ibid. V 12 N 6. October 18, 1920. Bellanca Advertisement, p 162.

ibid. V 12 N 6. October 18, 1920. News of the Week: A Manufacturing Opportunity, pp 167-168.

ibid. V 12 N 24. February 21, 1921. Bellanca Advertisement, p 600.

ibid. V 12 N 24. February 21, 1921. Bellance Announces Five-Seater, p 613.

Aero and Hydro. V 8 N 6. May 9, 1914 The Bossi Trans-Atlantic Hydro Described, pp 72-73.

Aviation. V 6 N 6. April 15, 1919. The Bellanca C.E. Biplane, p 332.

ibid. V 7 N 5. October 1, 1919. Bellanca Advertisement, p 233.

ibid. V 8 N 3. March 1, 1920. Bellanca Advertisement, p 124.

Ibid, V 13 N 7. August 14, 1922. The Bellanca CF 5-Seater Cabin Airplane, pp 183-185.

ibid. V 19 N 18. November 2, 1925. Wright-Bellanca Monoplane, pp 634-635.

ibid. V 20 N 14. April 5, 1926. Wright-Bellanca Monoplane, p 512.

ibid. V 22 N 18. May 2, 1927. The Bellanca Monoplane – Holder of the World Endurance Record: A Detailed Description of the Plane Which Remained in the Air Over 51 hr., and Will Attempt the Atlantic, pp 908-910.

ibid. V 22 N 26. June 27, 1927. Giuseppe M. Bellanca has Been Designing Successful Airplanes Since 1908, pp 1434-1435 and 1448.

Flight. V  N . April 21, 1921. The “Kite” 35 H.P. Biplane, p 279.

MISCELLANEOUS

Author’s recollections.

http://barthworks.com/trains/4000classbigboy/locations.htm

National Air and Space Museum Laser Videodisc 1, Side A, Frames 8627 – 9136; and, Laser Videodisc 2, Side B, Frames 2121-2137.

www.american-rails.com

www.earlyaviators.com

www.friendsofbellanca.org

www.utahrails.net

www.wikipedia.com

 

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